Extreme high notes

F5, G5 and above. Allow preparation time and avoid leaps!
Extreme high notes:

Reed removed

Removing the reed from the crook. Several
different effects available, including reed alone, blowing, tongue
slap, etc. Notated with a verbal instruction.
Reed removed:

Key rattle

Rattling instrument keys. Notated with x-shaped notehads and a verbal instruction. Not particularly loud on a single instrument.
Key rattle:

Multiphonics

Playing chords. In non-specific situations, notate by writing a bottom note with the word 'chord' above. There are quite a few possible on the bassoon, but bear in mind that individual instruments vary and the same sounds will not always be available on every instrument. Not very common on the contra!
Multiphonics (bassoon, played):
Multiphonics (contra, played): Multiphonics (bassoon, sung):



quartertones

Microtones


Intervals smaller than a semitone. Notations vary, but the examples above show a microtonal inflection and a quartertone. Produced by lipping.
Microtones:

The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at] bathspa.ac.uk