Retuning the strings. Notated with a verbal instruction to retune, possibly with an additional staff to show new tunings. Retuning takes time and care. Rare, but possible on the cello. Restrict retunings to a tone, preferably flattening.
Tapping the body of the instrument with fingers or with the bow. Notated with a verbal instruction, with x-shaped noteheads for extended passages. Tapping the body or the shoulder of the cello with knuckles or palm is acceptable. Using bow or other beaters is NOT!.
Tapping the instrument:
Play behind bridge
Playing the strings between the bridge and the tailpiece. Notated with a verbal instruction, with x-shaped noteheads if necessary. The standard bowing and plucking techniques may be used for this effect.
Intervals smaller than a semitone. Notations vary, but the examples above show a microtonal inflection and a quartertone. Microtones are tricky to pitch, and can easily sound like 'out of tune' playing, particularly if attempted by an entire section at once!
The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at] bathspa.ac.uk