General remarks about phrasing:
General remarks about slurring:
General remarks about tonguing:
Legato is played without tonguing
Each individual note is tongued and separated.
About non legato:
Non legato notation:
Short and separated notes (all tongued).
Very short tongued notes. Sometimes notated as staccato
notes with the word staccatissimo (or staccatiss.) written
Notes with both dots and slurs, or lines and slurs, vary in interpretation,
but are somewhere between legato and non legato. As the video clips
reveal, interpretations of these markings vary from player to player!
Tenuto (so-called) is really a variation on non legato and is sometimes
seen with both lines and dots implying shorter note durations. Means
either a stress or sustain, depending on context.
Double & Triple Tonguing
Partial tonguing in groups of two or three (e.g. on syllables ta-ka,
or ta-ka-ka) to give a very rapid articulation. This is possible on
the bass clarinet and clarinet, but not very clear.
A rolled 'r' tonguing. Not all players can do fluttertonguing. Those
that cannot have to 'fake' with a throat flutter that sounds less effective.