Of course, conductors are the only members of the orchestra who do not make a sound. Even so, in modern orchestras conductors are usually the most celebrated figures on the concert platform. Their interpretative role is crucial to our understanding of the music. Any composer presenting a new piece must develop a good relationship and understanding with the conductor.

Conductors as we know them today only emerged in the mid 19th century. Wagner, in particular, developed the role of the conductor as an individual, interpretative figure. Up to that point, conductors usually just kept time and often directed the music from the keyboard.

There are a number of instructional websites which give the basic information about conducting techniques, as follows:

Georgetown College Conducting Course

Information contained in this site will hopefully enhance the growth, development and understanding of young conducting scholars everywhere. I look forward to our journey together, as we explore the great musical craft known as conducting.

What to think about when conducting

Lee Humphries offers advice.

Teaching conducting to students

A primer for beginners.

'Essentials in conducting'

An online edition of a book by Karl Wilson Gehrkens.


The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at] bathspa.ac.uk