Some general remarks about extended techniques:

Alternative fingerings

There is no need to specify fingerings normally, so the use of alternative fingerings is generally left to the player. However, in specific cases notation consists of a verbal instruction and/or a fingering diagram.
Alternative fingerings:

Low hoots

The end barrel is pulled out and the mouthpiece turned inwards towards the player. An interesting effect, but with little carrying power. Notate with a verbal instruction.
Low hoots:

Whistle tones

Blowing a very small amount of air into the flute. Although this is a quiet and somewhat uncontrollable effect, it has more carrying power than might be supposed. Notate with a verbal instruction.
Whistle tones:


Playing chords. In non-specific situations, notate by writing a bottom note with the word 'chord' above. For more specific notations, consult specialist manuals.



Intervals smaller than a semitone. Notations vary, but the examples above show a microtonal inflection and a quartertone. Microtones are especially difficult on the piccolo, where the holes are entirely covered by keys. They are mostly produced using lip inflection.

Key slaps

Sslapping instrument keys. Notate with x-shaped noteheads and verbal instruction. The larger the flute, the more effective and pitched the key slap.
Key slaps:

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