The piano accordion has a keyboard of up to 45 keys. The lowest notes are uppermost in the playing position. Sets of reeds are vibrated by passage of air from the bellows operated by the player's right hand. The sets are tuned in octaves (usually three), with an additional slightly detuned fourth set called the tremulant. Shifts enable various combinations of the sets to be engaged. The left hand plays the bass buttons, which produce various chords or low bass notes.


Accordion range

Ths is the range of the concert 41-keyed accordion. Some accordions have fewer keys, 25 being the minimum.

The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at]