Air is pumped through sets, or ranks, of pipes are controlled by keyboards and/or pedals, and stops. The range and variety of organ design makes this a speciialist subject deserving of its own website!


Organ range

Organ music is notated on three staves. The written ranges of the keyboards and the pedals is shown.


Saint-Saëns Symphony No. 3 ('Organ symphony') Movement 2: blending with orchestra.

Saint-Saëns same piece, Movement 4, tutti with organ dominating.

Saint-Saëns same piece, Movement 4, tutti with organ blending.




The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at]