The brass layout has a couple of unusual features: the French Horns are traditionally placed at the top of the group, and the euphonium is placed as a high tuba (which, indeed, it is). French Horns are usually written in an interlocking fashion, i.e. Horns 1 and 3 are high horn specialists, whereas 2 and 4 are low horns (with 1 the highest and 4 the lowest in a four-part chord).


The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at]