vibrato

Vibrato

An undulation in pitch, that may be notated with a verbal instruction or a wavy line. Vibrato is integral to oboe/cor anglais technique, but can also be specifically notated as a special effect.
Vibrato on the oboe:
Vibrato on the cor anglais:

glissando

Glissando

A slide in pitch between notes. This is more or less impossible on the oboe. A few ascending (NOT descending) glissandi may be possible on the cor anglais, but these are very unusual.
Glissando (oboe):
Glissando (cor anglais):
Cor Anglais glissandi:
long, upwards, G-C sharp
longish, up, C sharp to F sharp
same, but short
shorter still

mute

Mute

A soft object insterted into the end of the oboe.
Improvised mutes are used on both instruments.
Mute (oboe):
Mute (cor anglais):

tremolo

Tremolo or "Shake"

A trill between two notes more than a tone apart. Most tremolandi are possible, but check fingerings. If many fingers have to be moved the effect becomes unreliable. This is especially the case high on the instrument.
Tremolos (oboe):
Oboe tremolos:
D4-F4 (minor 3rd)
D4-F#4 (major 3rd)
F5-Ab5 (min 3rd)
Gg5-Bb5 (maj 3rd)



trills

Trills

Oboe Trills
A rapid alternation between two pitches. The notation above, read in treble clef, shows a minor trill followed by a major trill, indicated by accidentals over the note. If these are not given, players will choose trill type based on musical context. The wavy lines indicating duration of trill are also optional. Trills are no problem in the lower two octaves of both instruments, but higher up they rapidly become difficult as fingerings become awkward.
Cor anglais trills:
Cor anglais double trills:

The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at] bathspa.ac.uk