PERCUSSION/KEYBOARDS/HARP

INSTRUMENT
WRITTEN
SOUNDING
NOTES
Crotales
Flexatone
Pitches are obviously approximate.
Glockenspiel
Tubular Bells
Vibraphone
Xylophone
Note that the given range is standard. However instruments do exist that are extended even as much as an octave in either direction. An extension down a third or a fourth is the most common such extension, but even so it is unusual. Check availability before writing for such instruments. (Thanks to Lennart Westman for this note).
Marimba
Timpani (set)
Each individual drum in a set of timpani has a range of a fifth.
Check the timpani pages for further information.
Piano
Some pianos extend downwards by a further 5th.
Some upright pianos only reach up to A7
Harpsichord

This is the range of the modern instrument.
Historical ranges may vary.

Organ
Organ music is notated on three staves.
The written ranges of the keyboards and the pedals is shown.
Harmonium
Harmonium ranges do vary greatly from instrument to instrument.
Accordion
Ths is the range of the 41-keyed concert accordion.
Some accordions have fewer keys, 25 being the minimum.
Celeste
Harp