General remarks about articulations:
Loud and quiet playing:



legato

Legato

Legato is played without tonguing
Legato

nonlegato

Non Legato

Each individual note is tongued and separated.
Non legato

staccato

Staccato

Short and separated notes (all tongued).
Staccato

wedge

Staccatissimo

Very short tongued notes. Sometimes notated as staccato notes with the word staccatissimo (or staccatiss.) written above.
Staccatissimo



legato staccato

Combinations

Notes with both dots and slurs, or lines and slurs, vary in interpretation, but are somewhere between legato and non legato. Player interpretations vary.
Legato staccato:
Legato tenuto:
Nonlegato staccato tenuto:

tenuto

"Tenuto"

Tenuto (so-called) is really a variation on non legato and is sometimes seen with both lines and dots implying shorter note durations. Means either a stress or sustain, depending on context.
Tenuto:

double and triple tonguing

Double & Triple Tonguing

Partial tonguing in groups of two or three (e.g. on syllables ta-ka, or ta-ka-ka) to give a very rapid articulation.
Double and triple tonguing:

fluttertonguing

Fluttertonguing

A rolled 'r' tonguing. Not all players can do fluttertonguing. Those that cannot have to 'fake' with a throat flutter that sounds less effective.
Growling:
Fluttertonguing

The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at] bathspa.ac.uk