Notated with a verbal instruction,
sometimes with a wavy line.
Vibrato on the trombone may be produced either by lip or slide motion. Slide vibrato can be quite exaggerated if required.
Slide vibrato effects across the instrument
A slide in pitch between notes. Glissandi within notes of the harmonic series are straightforward and characteristic on the trombone. Glissandi outside the series present more problems, and are usually 'faked' by sliding to the nearest available pitch then leaping to the desired note as quickly as possible.
Tremolo or "Shake"
The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at] bathspa.ac.uk