Air noise

Blowing through the instrument. Notated with a verbal instruction and perhaps rhythmic notation. Effective on the trombone and can be combined with slide motion or whistling. However, the single valve leaves little opportunity for simultaneous clacking.
Air noise:

Flap tongue

Flapping the tongue in the mouthpiece. Notated with x-noteheads and verbal instruction. Some pitches are avilable.
Flap tongue:


Multiphonics are achieved by singing into the instrument while playing. Notate sung notes with small noteheads. Easy and effective on the trombone, although it is hard to sing a note lower in pitch than the one being played.



Intervals smaller than a semitone. Notations vary, but the examples above show a microtonal inflection and a quartertone. Microtones are easy on the trombone.

Removed parts

Removing sections of the instrument to play. Notated with a verbal instruction.
Removed parts:

Smacking sounds

Smacking part of the instrument with the hand. Notate with a verbal instruction. The most common is the mouthpiece smack, but smacking the instrument elsewhere (and various clicks and clacks) are also possible.
Smacking sounds:

The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at]