vibrato

Vibrato

Notated with a verbal instruction, sometimes with a wavy line.
This is normally used as an exaggerated effect, reminiscent of jazz.
Vibrato

glissando

Glissando

A slide in pitch between notes. Half-valves in the lower register, and harmonic series or 'lip' glissando in the upper register.
Glissando:
Low register
Mid register
Top register

trills

Trills

All trills are possible on the trumpet. The use of lip or valve will depend upon the register.
Trills:
Low register
Mid register
Top register

tremolo

Tremolo or "Shake"

Tremolos on intervals more than a minor 3rd are possible if they can be played with the same fingering, or with only one finger moving.
Low register
Mid register
Top register



'Rip'

An indefinite glissando. This is not a standard classical technique, as the video clip demonstrates!
Rip:

Cuivré

A brassy sound. Notated with a verbal instruction. (Germ. schmettern It. produrre suoni metallici)
Cuivré

The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at] bathspa.ac.uk