Scordatura tuning

Retuning the strings. Notated with a verbal instruction to retune, possibly with an additional staff to show new tunings. Do not retune more than a tone, and in general it is better to lower than raise the pitch of the string. Retuning takes time and care.
Mahler 'Symphony No. 4' Movement 2:

Tap instrument

Tapping the body of the instrument with fingers or with the bow. Notated with a verbal instruction, with x-shaped noteheads for extended passages. Finger taps are common, but bow taps are to be used with care: no player would want to risk damaging the violin. If a bow tap is called for, the safest place to tap is the chinrest.
Tapping:

Play behind bridge

Playing the strings between the bridge and the tailpiece. Notated with a verbal instruction, with x-shaped noteheads if necessary. The standard bowing and plucking techniques may be used for this effect.
Playing behind the bridge:

 

 

 

Bow on bridge

Bowing the strings directly on the bridge. Notated with a verbal instruction, with x-shaped noteheads if necessary. This is not the same as sul ponticello which plays near the bridge.
Bowing on the bridge:

Bow tailpiece

Bowing the tailpiece. Notated with a verbal instruction. Extremely quiet!
Bowing the tailpiece:

Strike strings

Striking the strings with the hand. Notated with a verbal instruction. Pitches may also be fingered with the left hand.
Striking strings:

Scratch note

Pressing down hard on the string with the bow to produce a rasping. Notated with a verbal instruction, with x-shaped noteheads. As an obvious sign of bad technique, this sound is not flattering to the player.
Scratch note:

'Silent' fingering

Fingering pitches with the left hand without bowing or plucking the strings. Notated with a verbal instruction. Very quiet.

quartertones

Microtones


Intervals smaller than a semitone. Notations vary, but the examples above show a microtonal inflection and a quartertone. Microtones are tricky to pitch, and can easily sound like 'out of tune' playing, particularly if attempted by an entire section at once!

The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at] bathspa.ac.uk