General comments about tonguing:
Interpretation of accents:



legato

Legato

Legato is played without tonguing:
Legato and staccato compared:
Oboe
Low register
Middle register
High register
Cor anglais
Low register
Middle register

nonlegato

Non Legato

Each individual note is tongued and separated.
Oboe
Low register
Middle register
High register

staccato

Staccato

Short and separated notes (all tongued).
About staccato:
Oboe
Low register
Middle register
High register
Cor anglais
Low register
Middle register
High register

wedge

Staccatissimo

Very short tongued notes. Sometimes notated as staccato notes with the word staccatissimo (or staccatiss.) written above.
Oboe
Low register
Middle register
High register
Cor anglais
Low register
Middle register
High register



legato staccato

Combinations

Notes with both dots and slurs, or lines and slurs, vary in interpretation, but are somewhere between legato and non legato. As the video clips reveal, interpretations of these markings vary from player to player!
Tenuto under slur:
Staccato under slur (oboe):
Staccato under slur (cor anglais):
Oboe
Low register
Middle register
High register
Cor anglais
Low register

tenuto

"Tenuto"

Tenuto (so-called) is really a variation on non legato and is sometimes seen with both lines and dots implying shorter note durations. Means either a stress or sustain, depending on context.
Tenuto:
Oboe
Low register
Middle register
High register
Cor anglais
Low register
Middle register
High register

double and triple tonguing

Double & Triple Tonguing

Partial tonguing in groups of two or three (e.g. on syllables ta-ka, or ta-ka-ka) to give a very rapid articulation.
Double tonguing (oboe):
Double tonguing (cor anglais):

fluttertonguing

Fluttertonguing

A rolled 'r' tonguing. Not all players can do fluttertonguing. Those that cannot have to 'fake' with a throat flutter that sounds less effective.
Fluttertouguing (oboe):
Cor anglais
Low register, separate notes
Low register, slurred
Middle register, separate notes
Middle register, slurred

The Orchestra: A User's Manual is a free resource and will remain so. It still receives between 8,000 and 16,000 unique visits per month from all over the world. See the testimonials. Thanks to all the donations, I have been able to create this responsive re-design. But the movies and sound clips recorded in 2004 do show their age. I would really like to re-record everything and add many more techniques, especially for solo and ensemble writing. I estimate this will cost around £30,000. If you know a source of such funds, please contact me: a.hugill [at] bathspa.ac.uk